“On Divers Arts”, Theophilus. Paperback, 1979, 216 pages illustrated.
Translated from Latin by John G. Hawthorne and Cyrill Stanley Smith. Dover Publications, Inc. New York City. “I have made it my concern to hunt out this technique for your study as I learned it by looking and listening.” On Divers Arts, c. 1122, is the oldest extant manual on artistic crafts to be written by a practicing artist. Theophilus teaches, with rigorous attention to face but also with great reverence, the making of pigments for fresco painting, the manufacture of flue, the technique of gold leaf on parchment (the first recorded European reference to true paper), how to blow glass and design stained glass windows, fashion gold and silver chalices, make a pipe organ and church bells. Precise instruction (earliest know instruction_ on enameling, chasing, repoussé, niello, and beaded wire work prove Theopphilus’ first-hand knowledge of his craft.